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Question 1. Which standards define the resistor value of ESD shoes? 
2. Is it 10E6-10E8?
- Anonymous, China
Answer 1.Which standards define the resistor value of ESD shoes? A: For shoes only there is ESD-S9.1-1995, Footwear - Resistive Characterizations (does not include Foot Grounders) and an be found at 
     Note: The recommended electrical resistance range for static control footwear is 1x106 ohms to 1x109 ohms. Values less than 1x106 ohms may present an electrical hazard. Values grater than 1x109 ohms may exhibit increased dissipation times. There is no current standard that just foot grounders are suppose to adhere to. UL dictates that for a personnel grounding strap to be safe, it must have at least a 1 megohm resistor in series to it’s ground path. All of our foot grounders adhere to this UL requirement which makes them listed with UL. Also refer to document UL 1950. This resistor requirement is solely for the safety of the operator. Since the resistor can have a +/-20 % tolerance and the tester itself can have a +/- 10% tolerance at this level (1 megohm). Our Combo Tester has as the lower passing range 750 kilohms. Since there is no current standard that just foot grounders are suppose to adhere to we had chosen the 100 megohm upper limit on our foot grounders. We invented Foot Grounders and have developed the Combo Tester through an evolution process with our users. Today we have full manufacturing control over these key products. Our combo testers are adjustable to minimum and maximum resistance ranges. There are some users that prefer to a 10 megohm upper limit and others a 35 megohm upper limit for Foot Grounders. The ESD Association has prepared new standards documents to address the ESD foot wear and floor system, with the ESD STM 97.1 (< 35x106 ohm) or ESD STM 97.2 (< 100 Volts). Either way, our Foot Grounders comply to both standards.
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